Free And Albumin-Bound Testosterone
Testosterone can be classified into two ‘types’- total, free, serum, and bioavailable testosterone. Androgens are produced in humans and the steroid hormone testosterone belongs to a group of androgens. It does a lot more than just
Testosterone can be classified into two ‘types’- total, free, serum, and bioavailable testosterone. Androgens are produced in humans and the steroid hormone testosterone belongs to a group of androgens. It does a lot more than just contributing to secondary sex characteristics. It also promotes optimal testosterone absorption so it not just another sex hormone. It has various effects like it affects one’s behavior, brings out anabolic effects and also affects the person emotionally, physically and mentally.
The male testes i.e. the testicular Leydig cells produces testosterone. Even woman’s ovaries produce testosterone but in very small amount. The male and female adrenal glands also produce a very small amount of testosterone, these glands are located on top of the kidneys. Injuries and bad habits should be avoided in order to promote optimal testosterone absoprtion. Every human being cannot produce the same amount of testosterone. Various factors such as current health condition, age, and gender determine the level. The levels may also reduce due to infection, illness, and injury to the testicles or even a defective pituitary gland.
The pituitary gland is the master gland of the body. The main role of the master gland is to see the functioning and controlling the increasing and decreasing of the hormones which are secreted by the hormone glands present in the endocrine system. The testes receive the signals from the pituitary gland whether to increase or decrease the testosterone production. The hypothalamus gland is responsible for maintaining balance in the body and is located in the brain. It is the hypothalamus gland which sends orders to restore this production to the pituitary gland. It is just a simple way of telling how testosterone is produced. The endocrine system, glands, and secretions from these glands together balance hormone levels which affect the entire body and not just one organ. Testosterone can be broken into a number of components and then be measured separately but it is a very powerful hormone on its own.
There are two forms in which testosterone circulates in the blood- bound to blood proteins and unbound to proteins. Bound to proteins is also known as SHBG( sex hormone binding globulin) or androgen binding protein. Any of the two forms mentioned above is known as bio available, which means that the cells can use the androgen which is available. Earlier it was believed that non-bound testosterone is not bio available and only the free testosterone is bio available but studies have shown that even non-bound is bio available. Androgen levels in the testicles are almost 20 times higher than measured in the bloodstream. A man undergoing testosterone replacement therapy should experience an increase in overall testosterone level measured in the blood. Which will give a signal to the testes to stop producing the hormone. Therefore the levels in testes decreases which results in a lack of sperm production.
The total levels are parallel to bio available and free levels. The range for any man in any situation depends largely on the time of day the blood test took place, age, and health. TTST(testosterone, total, serum) is the test which measures the total amounts and analyzes it. It is one of the most common tests to determine the diagnosis of low T and can be combined with many tests such as a luteinizing hormone. TTBS test(testosterone, total, bio available, and serum) is a bio available test for a definitive diagnosis.